Comment voyager “vert” en Afrique ?

Alors que la sensibilisation sur le réchauffement climatique va grandissant et que chaque soubresaut de dame nature remet le sujet au centre du débat, la question se pose pour certains voyageurs que de limiter son impact sur l’environnement, limiter la production de gaz à effet de serre et aussi d’avoir un impact positif sur les populations locales. Ce qu’il faut savoir, c’est que le continent produit seulement entre 5 et 10% des gaz à effets de serre au niveau de la planète… Mais la progression est fulgurante et le développement des grandes métropoles ne se fait pas toujours (et même rarement) en prenant en compte ces aspects environnementaux.

Pourquoi ? Qui sont les bons élèves (et les mauvais) ? Comment le tourisme peut-il positivement influencer le développement économique ? Dissocier la préservation de l’environnement, de la biodiversité de l’économie, de la rentabilité, revient à être prêcher pour un changement qui n’arrivera jamais… Le continent a une formidable carte à jouer… reste à transformer l’essai… nous en sommes loin.

Pourquoi cette question n’est pas encore d’actualité en Afrique ?

La question est d’entrée erronée ; tout d’abord parce que le continent est grand et varié et le niveau de sensibilisation dépend du pays et de son régime mais aussi de sa situation géographique. Ainsi certains pays des régions sahéliennes sont très sensibilisés avec en tête le Sénégal qui a récemment inauguré sa centrale éolienne à Taïba Ndiaye. Mais les grands pays le sont malheureusement moins ; le Nigeria, largement nourri par le pétrole, l’Afrique du Sud, dont le système énergétique est en quasi faillite et largement nourri d’une production au charbon sont largement à la traîne. Le cas de l’Afrique du Sud est intéressant : ce pays est moderne et jouit d’infrastructures globalement importantes.

Toutefois, le développement de véhicules électriques est embryonnaire et la sensibilisation aux alternatives est encore plus limitée… le solaire y est trop peu développé, sauf dans des zones éloignées ou dans des quartiers plus pauvres (township notamment) ; l’éolien est quasi absent alors que des zones côtières venteuses ne manquent pas. Bref, ce pays a abandonné la question énergétique et cela lui pose ou posera d’énormes problèmes dans un futur proche… à ce même titre la menace du Day 0 au Cap il y a 2 ans (risque du manque total d’eau) montre le manque de vision de ce pays en la matière.

Qui sont les bons élèves ?

J’ai parlé du Sénégal qui couvrira bientôt 30% de ses besoins en énergie avec des énergies renouvelables, ce qui est remarquable… et indispensable, combo de solaire (dans les zones désertiques) et d’éoliens sur les zones côtières. Les autres pays sont encore timides voire inexistants sur ce sujet, au niveau national alors qu’ils ont les moyens soit naturels soit financiers de développer des solutions alternatives : le Kenya, la Namibie ou le Botswana. Evidemment les solutions hydroélectriques existent et continuent de se développer (Ethiopie sur le Nil bleu ou ailleurs en Afrique centrale notamment) mais cela ne se fait pas toujours au meilleur des intérêts des populations… ou de la biodiversité.

Le CO² c’est bien mais il y a aussi la biodiversité, capital inestimable du continent ; on sait que les gorilles des montagnes, un temps menacés dramatiquement au Rwanda ou en Ouganda voient leur population grimper grâce au tourisme et à une volonté politique forte. Mais les meilleurs élèves demeure les solutions individuelles, isolées mais notoire : certains lodges, les plus isolés des infrastructures, ont développé dès le début des solutions pour avoir un impact nul sur la nature ; les camps du Botswana sont à ce titre exemplaires. Des initiatives fleurissent pour faire des safaris en 4X4 électriques (Tanzanie, et un peu ailleurs mais encore trop rare).

Mais tous disent préserver et aider les communautés… là aussi, cela se fait sans contrôle ni vision à long terme… il serait bon de coordonner toutes ces actions plutôt que de vider l’océan avec une petite cuillère.

Comment le tourisme peut influencer la préservation de l’environnement tout en favorisant le développement économique ?

Le safari et les revenus qui en découlent ont un impact positif sur le préservation de la faune, c’est prouvé et l’expérience rwandaise le confirme encore. Mais le sur tourisme dans ces zones sauvages peut avoir des effets dévastateurs sur les écosystèmes comme le Masaï Mara kenyan l’a prouvé avant de respirer malgré lui au début des années 2010. Les revenus du tourisme sont aussi très mal distribués, ce sera l’objet d’un autre article. Croire que l’on peut se servir sans redonner doit changer et clairement cela doit avant tout se passer au niveau des états et des règles financières et fiscales.

4X4 rutilants, hélicoptères à gogo, les voyageurs à gros budget se lâchent sur le continent et clairement le sujet ne les concerne pas, ni ne concerne ceux qui les accueillent… certes un petit alibi social autour des communautés et hop… on peut tout se permettre. Il en va de la responsabilité de chacun aussi de préférer le voyage immobile, aller moins vite, zapper moins, rouler moins, profiter, jouir de la nature et des gens, marcher, ramer, flâner… mais cela viendra aussi avec le développement de solutions et d’imagination de ceux dont c’est le métier.

Et maintenant ?

Le continent africain est le nouvel eldorado… à force de le dire, cela arrivera forcément. Les taux de croissance sont élevés, le continent est le dernier morceau du monde pouvant connaître des croissances exponentielles ; sa population est jeune, bref l’avenir appartient au continent… mais, comme déjà de nombreuses entreprises ou microentreprises qui se sont créées, il existe une opportunité unique de se développer autrement sans suivre l’exemple des pays du Nord ou celui plus récent de l’Inde ou de la Chine.

Il faut que chaque pays ou tous ensemble invente un modèle de développement urbain non basé sur la gestion du chaos, un mode de développement agricole profitable mais tout en gérant les ressources de la terre et des rivières et lacs et le bien être des populations. La lutte contre le plastique est très avancée dans certains pays, au Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzanie et bien d’autres, le plastique a été banni…

il faut des solutions et ces solutions peuvent être un axe de développement formidable pour ce continent qui sait innover et parfois s’affranchir des diktats des grands principes émis au Nord… Bref, le continent a un chemin à suivre, espérons que celui-ci sera inédit… et pérenne.

Commentaire (109)

  • Belle analyse teintée d’une belle vision de ce beau continent , qui j’en suis convaincu finira par trouver le chemin de l’autosuffisance grâce à son sol et sous-sol très riches, utiliser le solaire dont la matière première ne manque pas sur ce continent, pour enfin tourner définitivement le dos aux énergies polluantes.
    Cette croissance forte et constante constatée depuis quelques années laisse augurer un meilleur.
    On n’y croit.
    Merci pour ce bel article

    Ka
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